like other middle Dalmatian islands with its rich vegetation and flora
has always attracted local and foreign botanists. The data of many enthusiasts
who did research of flora and fauna at their own expense were very helpful.
Vegetation of the island of Šolta belongs to the eastern Adriatic euro Mediterranean zone that used to be covered with holm-oakwood. But under the influence of people the number of trees was reduced and their place was taken by evergreen underbrush, bushes and rocky pastures. The main district of central evergreen area that includes Šolta is characteristic for weak humidity and the longest summer droughts so it is not strange that hardy plants like dry weed grasslands and holophilic vegetation at steep cliffs are rooted.
There were rocky dry pastures while Šolta’s economy was based on pasture of livestock but today they turn into shrubs dominated by groundsel, feather-grass, sage and others. Weed vegetation can be seen in smaller areas. In nitrophilic areas developed nettle vegetation. On the southern part of the island where the coast is very steep and exposed to strong blows of the sea developed vegetation of vertical rocks that is fragmentary. These are fleabane, hair-grass (busina bjelusina) and knapweed of Dubrovnik.
Fauna of the island of Šolta is very numerous and widespread so that on Šolta were registered 17 species of birds that weren’t seen on the island of Brač.
For example on Šolta can be found 105 species of birds from 33 families. The most typical bird of the island of Šolta that is also its symbol is “cuvitar” (screech owl) that is a subspecies of the owl and it belongs to strigidae, while its Latin name is Otus scops. It nests on the island, and eats different insects. A characteristic bird of the island is also a pheasant. It belongs to Phasina idae. It lives on the island, it is very frequent and it nests in fields and evergreen underbrush. Agriculturalists and wine-growers don’t like it because it eats their fruits so very often it is killed off. There are also “skanjac”, sparrow-hawk, hawk and others.
It is interesting that on Šolta was seen a steppe-eagle (aguila rapax) and this is the only place in Croatia where it was found.
Of forest animals the most interesting is hare. Tourists can see it very often and at night hours it is almost impossible to pass the main road by car without this small animal jumping in front of you. Passing through the woods even close to the paths it makes a lot passages for the escape. Its biggest flaw is that it is very delicious food so it is a very frequent target of local hunters.